from the coins minted by the Company. The Mughal Empire Class 7 Extra Questions Social Science History Chapter 4. Mufti – A jurist of the Muslim community responsible for expounding the law that the qazi would administer, Impeachment – A trial by the House of Lords in England for charges of misconduct brought against a person in the House of Commons. Q41. Combined with its indirect influence on the remaining territory and population of the country, the East India Company had virtually the whole of India under its control. This meant that no other trading group in England could compete with the East India Company. The East India Company adopted the same method when it began recruitment for its own army, which came to be known as the sepoy army (from the Indian word sipahi, meaning soldier). By 1778 a code of Muslim laws was also compiled for the benefit of European judges. It is said that once he went hunting in the forest with a French friend. They refused to grant the Company concessions, demanded large tributes for the Company’s right to trade, denied it any right to mint coins, and stopped it from extending its fortifications. 6. The cavalry dominated the army and the Mughal state did not feel the need to have a large professionally trained infantry. 2. Look at these maps along with a present- day political map of India. Through the early eighteenth century the conflict between the Company and the nawabs of Bengal intensified. Q46. Q47. The Mansabdars were ranked based on the number of men that they had raised and the ranking system became known as mansab. After all, they had to maintain a basic appearance of dignity and sovereignty if they wanted respect from their subjects. From the side of his father Umar Sheikh Mirza, he was the fifth descendant of Timur and from the side of his mother Qutlugh Nigar Khanum, he was the fourteenth descendant of Genghis Khan. In 1663 he wounded and chased away the Mughal general and Aurangzeb’s uncle Shaista Khan. They were given training in archery ( teer-andazi) and the use of the sword. Quoted in Nigel Wordon et. 13 – A sawar of Bengal in the service of the Company, painted by an unknown Indian artist, 1780. Fig. In order to protect its interests it was justified in annexing or threatening to annex any Indian kingdom. On June 22, 1555, they met in battle. Write a short note on Subedar Sitaram Pande. Colonial rule in India brought in some new ideas of administration and reform but its power rested on its military strength. Murshid Quli Khan was followed by Alivardi Khan and then Sirajuddaulah as the Nawab of Bengal. Having failed to work with puppet nawabs, Clive declared: “We must indeed become nawabs ourselves.”. If we analyse the process of annexation of Indian states by the East India Company from 1757 to 1857, certain key aspects emerge. Later on, the highest number of mansabs was raised from 10,000 to 12,000; thus there was no fixed number of … But it also meant something else. In 1856, Governor-General Canning decided As warfare technology changed from the 1820s, the cavalry requirements of the Company’s army declined. Did you know that the British originally came as a small trading company and were reluctant to acquire territories? Overall, Persians were the most numerous in the Mughal nobility 2- Pashtuns, smaller presence in Mughal nobility compared to Persians and Turanis but very large presence in the army, perhaps as numerous as Rajputs. Under the Regulating Act of 1773, a new Supreme Court was established, while a court of appeal – the Sadar Nizamat Adalat – was also set up at Calcutta. What did the British do to suppress the revolt of 1857? After the Battle of Buxar (1764), the Company appointed Residents in Indian states. They were severely punished, and since the issue did not die down, in Often this created problems since caste and community feelings were ignored in building a force of professional soldiers. By the time Mir Jafar died in 1765 the mood of the Company had changed. new laws so that the rebels could be convicted with ease, and then moved into A member of the British Cabinet was One of the main reasons for the defeat of the Nawab was that the forces led by Mir Jafar, one of Sirajuddaulah’s commanders, never fought the battle. Each district was to have two courts – a criminal court (faujdari adalat) and a civil court (diwani adalat). What did the sepoys feel? By his time the Company had acquired power not only in Bengal, but also in Bombay and Madras. The Mughal Empire - Chapter Wise CBSE Solved Question and Answer Based On NCERT. Rani From Trade to Territory – The company establishes power Class 8 History Chapter 2, Explanation, Question Answers. During Mughal Akbar's reign the mansabs (ranks) ranged from 10 to 5,000 troops. Ans. In the late 1830s the East India Company became worried about Russia. The Company also persuaded the Mughal emperor Aurangzeb to issue a farman granting the Company the right to … When slavery ended in 1834 there were 36,774 privately owned slaves at the Cape – located at the southern most tip of Africa. title of Viceroy, that is, a personal representative of the Crown. N.B. By the second ha lf of the eighteenth century, however, a new power was emerging on the political horizon – the British. Instead it used a variety of political, economic and diplomatic methods to extend its influence before annexing an Indian kingdom. Q51. route. loyalty of the people. The Governor-General of India was given the The Company was still unwilling to take over the responsibility of administration. These moves and the defeat of Bijapur army sent to punish Shivaji alarmed the Mughal officials. The term is used disapprovingly to refer to a person who is controlled by someone else. Could they see themselves only as soldiers and not as members of communities? They were divided into many states under different chiefs (sardars) belonging to dynasties such as Sindhia, Holkar, Gaikwad and Bhonsle. It wanted more territories and more revenue. ii. Write a short note on ‘Babur’? Powers of the East India Company were In the early nineteenth century the British began to develop a uniform military culture. After this he came to be known as the “Tiger of Mysore”. The Second Anglo-Maratha War (1803-05) was fought on different fronts, resulting in the British gaining Orissa and the territories north of the Yamuna river including Agra and Delhi. In 1785 Tipu Sultan stopped the export of sandalwood, pepper and cardamom through the ports of his kingdom, and disallowed local merchants from trading with the Company. Ans. The Battle of Plassey became famous because it was the first major victory the Company won in India. The Peshwa was removed and sent away to Bithur near Kanpur with a pension. Now revenues from India could finance Company expenses. Mughal Administration *The Central Government* == *Provincial Administration* == *Finances* == *Military Organization* == *The Judiciary* [[209]] BEFORE following the fate of the Mughal empire under Aurangzeb's successors in the eighteenth century, it will be useful to outline the main features of administration under the four great emperors. But the presence of Maharaja Ranjit Singh held back the Company. Robert Clive himself amassed a fortune in India. Trade was carried on with arms and trading posts were protected through fortification. Choose from 500 different sets of mughal empire chapter 18 flashcards on Quizlet. Lakshmibai was defeated and killed in June 1858. Many of them came from humble backgrounds and their uppermost desire was to earn enough in India, return to Britain and lead a comfortable life. Write the headline for each of the two newspapers. Clive had managed to secure his support by promising to make him nawab after crushing Sirajuddaulah. He had come to Madras (now Chennai) from England in 1743 at the age of 18. To bring about uniformity, in 1775 eleven pandits were asked to compile a digest of Hindu laws. An infuriated Sirajuddaulah asked the Company to stop meddling in the political affairs of his dominion, stop fortification, and pay the revenues. (a) The Mughal empire became stronger in the eighteenth century. The first English factory was set up on the banks of the river Hugli in 1651. Officer, Norgate, to write his memoirs. Lucknow was taken in March 1858. suppress the rebellion though his own son was a rebel and was killed by the The French East India Company had a similar remit. 10. Dharmashastras – Sanskrit texts prescribing social rules and codes of behaviour, composed from c. 500 BCE onwards, Musket – A heavy gun used by infantry soldiers, Matchlock – An early type of gun in which the powder was ignited by a match. Answer: Ain-i-Akbari and Akbamamah. What were the main provisions of the Act of 1858? up employment in the Company’s army had to agree to serve overseas if required. The outflow of gold from Britain slowed after the Battle of Plassey, and entirely stopped after the assumption of Diwani. So when Main Features of the Mansabdari System: 1. After the death of Aurangzeb, the Bengal nawabs asserted their power and autonomy, as other regional powers were doing at that time. Finally, the Third Anglo-Maratha War of 1817-19 crushed Maratha power. A change occurred in the eighteenth century when Mughal successor states like Awadh and Benaras started recruiting peasants into their armies and training them as professional soldiers. Lastly in the name of human nature itself, in the name of both the sexes, in the name of every age, in the name of every rank, I impeach the common enemy and oppressor of all. When the Mughals made a punitive expedition, Shivaj boldly confronted them. revolt of 1857? Thus the East India Company was transformed from a trading company to a territorial colonial power. (b) The English East India Company was the only European company that traded with India. Accusing the Company of deceit, they claimed that the Company was depriving the Bengal government of huge amounts of revenue and undermining the authority of the nawab. When Alivardi Khan died in 1756, Sirajuddaulah became the nawab of Bengal. Fig. But it had to buy most of the goods in India with gold and silver imported from Britain. Write a short note on Subedar Sitaram Pande. Its prime objective was the expansion of trade. There he came face to face with a tiger. The arrival of new steam technology in the early nineteenth century also aided this process. At his hearing in front of a Committee in Parliament, Clive declared that he had shown admirable restraint after the Battle of Plassey. In India, Britain was represented by the British East India Company, a venture that had been given a royal charter in 1600 to pursue trade in the East Indies that included the right to form its own army. iii. claims to land would not be denied. Soldiers were increasingly subjected to European-style training, drill and discipline that regulated their life far more than before. They tried to decide who was to be the successor to the throne, and who was to be appointed in administrative posts. You are living in England in the late eighteenth or early nineteenth century. Fig. We do not take the responsibility of how the information provided by this website is used or the consequence of its use. new laws so that the rebels could be convicted with ease, and then moved into How did the Company suppress the revolt? The soldiers of the Mughal Army were not commonly recruited by the emperor himself but rather by chiefs and other leaders, who were known as Mansabdars. Overview The last powerful Mughal ruler was Aurangzeb and after his death in 1707, many Mughal On retirement he was persuaded by his Commanding Each company servant began to have visions of living like nawabs. What will you plan to do so that you can inherit the crown? Those who managed to return with wealth led flashy lives and flaunted their riches. allowed to continue to enjoy traditional rights over their lands. Driven by this fear, the British now wanted to secure their control over the north-west. The Mughal rulers did not have a navy and made no efforts to establish one. This time the British had an added argument – they said they were “obliged by duty” to take over Awadh in order to free the people from the “misgovernment” of the Nawab! NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Social Science, NCERT Solutions for class 8 History, When People Rebel- Class 8th NCERT Solutions History, Chapter 5 - When People Rebel- NCERT - Class 8 – History, NCERT Solutions for Class 8th: Ch 5 When People Rebel History, Class VIII History Notes and study material for When People Rebel, Social Science (Sst) –History - Class 8 (CBSE/NCERT) - Chapter 5 – When People Rebel- Questions and Answers/Notes/Worksheets Tags: CBSE Class 8 - History – Chapter 5 - When People Rebel Practice Pages, Extra Question and Answer based on NCERT for Class 8th, Social Science History, CBSE Grade VIII free Worksheets PDF on When People Rebel, History Question bank on When People Rebel for eighth standard, How did other Indian soldiers in Meerut participate in the revolt of 1857? The farmers examined them, as if they had been so many head of cattle. ... to write a history of his reign. ... Write a note on Shah-Jahan military campaigns. British painters always liked painting scenes that showed the triumph of British power. The final wave of annexations occurred under Lord Dalhousie who was the Governor-General from 1848 to 1856. How did British plan to bring Mughal dynasty to an end? The Diwani allowed the Company to use the vast revenue resources of Bengal. He could enhance the mansab, lower down it or remove it. These chiefs were held together in aconfederacy under a Peshwa (Principal Minister) who became its effective military and administrative head based in Pune. September 1857. Mr Chairman, at this moment I stand astonished at my moderation. CBSE Class 8 History Chapter 5 Important Questions. The British were furious. The king himself appointed the mansabdars. Persian, Indian, and various provincial styles were fused to produce works of unusual quality and refinement such as the Taj Mahal, in Agra. 12 – The trial of Warren Hastings, painted by R.G. route. How did British plan to bring Mughal dynasty to an end? captured, tried and killed in April 1859. After negotiations failed, the Nawab marched with 30,000 soldiers to the English factory at Kassimbazar, captured the Company officials, locked the warehouse, disarmed all Englishmen, and blockaded English ships. 20 Causes behind the Downfall of the Mughals in India. However, the ranking system, which was first introduced by Akbar, did not apply only to the chiefs: every man employed for state service who was a… Write short notes on Akbar's religious policy. Two years later it bribed Mughal officials into giving the Company zamindari rights over three villages. The Company on its part declared that the unjust demands of the local officials were ruining the trade of the Company, and trade could flourish only if the duties were removed. Table 1 charts some of the major campaigns of the Mughals. Q49. You will notice, for example, that the Afghans were an immediate threat to Mughal authority. Sikandar was defeated by the Mughal army and was compelled to retreat to the Sivalik Hills in northern Punjab. Those were the days many people in the country believed But officials of the Company, who were carrying on private trade on the side, were expected to pay duty. the storm centres of the revolt. The soldiers of the Company’s army had to keep pace with changing military requirements and its infantry regiments now became more important. Those were the days many people in the country believed What will be your feelings? the storm centres of the revolt. Pollard, 1789When Warren Hastings went back to England in 1785, Edmund Burke accused him of being personally responsible for the misgovernment of Bengal. ... What constituted the Mughal army? From the late eighteenth century the Company also sought to curb and eventually destroy Maratha power. Fig. Mughal army on campaign. These Extra Questions with solution are prepared by our team of expert teachers who are teaching grade in CBSE … Answer: The author of Ain-i-Akbari is Abul Fazal. Study it carefully and see if you can notice any long-term patterns. The Company tried continuously to press for more concessions and manipulate existing privileges. How did the British succeed in securing the submission of From the early eighteenth century its trade with India had expanded. In this chapter you will see how this came about. 10 May, the soldiers marched to the jail in Meerut and released the imprisoned More members were to be inducted into the Central Legislative Council and the Provincial Legislative Councils. Soon the French traders arrived on the scene. But Rayanna, a poor chowkidar of Sangoli in Kitoor, carried on the resistance. हिंदी - बाल महाभारत कथा (Chapter 01 - 20), हिंदी - बाल महाभारत कथा (Chapter 21 - 40). 11. The conflicts led to confrontations and finally culminated in the famous Battle of Plassey. 5. What information does … The first volume dealt with Akbar’s ancestors. If the Indian rulers failed to make the payment, then part of their territory was taken away as penalty. Warren Hastings (Governor-General from 1773 to 1785) was one of the many important figures who played a significant role in the expansion of Company power. Question: Write the main features of the Morley-Minto Reforms. princes. He battled with the tiger unarmed until he managed to reach down and pick up the dagger. These include: 1526 defeat of Sultan Ibrahim Lodi at Panipat and establishment of Mughal empire in India. This was because at this time Britain had no goods to sell in India. eval(ez_write_tag([[300,250],'educationwithfun_com-box-3','ezslot_0',112,'0','0'])); Ans. Be it the founder of the Mughal Empire – Babur or his invincible descendants like Humayun, Akbar, Aurangzeb, etc., each name has its own list of glory, achievements and power. i. They were given training in archery (teer-andazi) and the use of the sword. dynasty to an end. Two years later it bribed Mughal officials into giving the Company zamindari rights over three villages. You will read more about several cases of resistance later in the book. The British also tried their best to win back the The only way the trading companies could flourish was by eliminating rival competitors. If this could be done without conquest, through the help of local rulers who were willing to grant privileges, then territories need not be taken over directly. It is clear from the above that from the early nineteenth century the Company pursued an aggressive policy of territorial expansion. Four wars were fought with Mysore (1767-69, 1780-84, 1790-92 and 1799). up employment in the Company’s army had to agree to serve overseas if required. They were often seen as upstarts and social climbers in British society and were ridiculed or made fun of in plays and cartoons. Now you find that this will not be allowed by the British because of the new Doctrine of Lapse. Interestingly, when he was appointed Governor of Bengal in 1764, he was asked to remove corruption in Company administration but he was himself cross-examined in 1772 by the British Parliament which was suspicious of his vast wealth. The problem was that all the companies were interested in buying the same things. all its might. ... Mughal Military Campaigns. 9.8 The Buland Darwaza, Fatehpur Sikri 237 bazaars (Chandni Chowk) and spacious homes for the nobility. Powers of the East India Company were In fact, it was Vasco da Gama, a Portuguese explorer, who had discovered this sea route to India in 1498. Rani Why were the Indian sepoys unhappy with the British rule? Under Lord Hastings (Governor-General from 1813 to 1823) a new policy of “paramountcy” was initiated. The supreme head of the administration was the Governor-General. The Diwani allowed the Company to exploit the vast revenue resources of Bengal. This is a picture of one of their meetings in progress. British in front of his eyes. In 1849, Governor-General Dalhousie Warren Hastings, the first Governor-General, introduced several administrative reforms, notably in the sphere of justice. A great prince was dependent on my pleasure; an opulent city lay at my mercy; its richest bankers bid against each other for my smiles; I walked through vaults which were thrown open to me alone, piled on either hand with gold and jewels! Mughal architecture, building style that flourished in northern and central India from the mid-16th to the late 17th century under the patronage of the Mughal emperors. Few pictures have been taken from different sources, If any Graphic / Image is offensive or under any copyrights then please email us to get it removed. He They have enticed several merchants and others to go and take protection under them and they collect a revenue which amounts to Rs 100, 000 … they rob and plunder and carry great number of the king's subjects of both sexes into slavery into their own country …. The Mughal army was mainly composed of cavalry (sawars: trained soldiers on horseback) and infantry, that is, paidal (foot) soldiers. princes. Those who had The Army of the Mughal Empire was the force by which the Mughal emperors established their empire in the 15th century and expanded it to its greatest extent at the beginning of the 18th century. The Company rarely launched a direct military attack on an unknown territory. (b) Haidar Ali and Tipu Sultan were the rulers of ___________. Soon a slave trade began. Each was ruled by a Governor. Fig. Fig. For even the puppet nawabs were not always as helpful as the Company wanted them to be. Enraged by the humiliating way in which the Nawab was deposed, the people of Awadh joined the great revolt that broke out in 1857. Fig. Through the Residents, the Company officials began interfering in the internal affairs of Indian states. Through the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries they regularly sank each other’s ships, blockaded routes, and prevented rival ships from moving with supplies of goods. In each of these maps, try and identify the different parts of India that were not under British rule. Steamships reduced the journey time to three weeks enabling more Britishers and their families to come to a far-off country like India. Many died an early death in India due to disease and war and it would not be right to regard all of them as corrupt and dishonest. What were the main features of sulh-i kul? Aurangzeb was the last of the powerful Mughal rulers. Delhi was recaptured from the rebel forces in Its main feature were as follows. September 1857. management of Indian affairs. Although its origins, like the Mughals themselves, were in the cavalry-based armies of central Asia, its essential form and structure was established by the empire's third emperor, Akbar. In what way was the administration of the Company different from that of Indian rulers? As trade expanded, the Company persuaded merchants and traders to come and settle near the factory. ICSE Solutions for Class 9 History and Civics – The Mughal Empire ICSE SolutionsSelina ICSE SolutionsML Aggarwal Solutions EXERCISES Question 1. They were severely punished, and since the issue did not die down, in With this charter the Company could venture across the oceans, looking for new lands from which it could buy goods at a cheap price, and carry them back to Europe to sell at higher prices. Collect pictures, stories, poems and information about any of the following – the Rani of Jhansi, Mahadji Sindhia, Haidar Ali, Maharaja Ranjit Singh, Lord Dalhousie or any other contemporary ruler of your region. By the early seventeenth century, the Dutch too were exploring the possibilities of trade in the Indian Ocean. There were three Presidencies: Bengal, Madras and Bombay. This solved a major problem that the company had earlier faced. After his death in 1839, two prolonged wars were fought with the Sikh kingdom. Traditional Army: The Mughal army was mainly composed of cavalry (sawars: trained soldiers on horseback) and infantry, that is, paidal (foot) soldiers. 3 – Local boats bring goods from ships in Madras, painted by William Simpson, 1867. captured, tried and killed in April 1859. Sikandar led an army of 80,000 and met the Mughals at Sirhind. So when 1527 defeat of Mewar king Rana Sanga and his allies at Khanua; 1528 defeat of Rajputs at Chanderi; In 1530, Humayun came to power but in 1540 lost his empire to Sher Shah Suri. Write a short note on Subedar Sitaram Pande. 1- Tajiks from Kabul to Herat, they were a component of Persian nobility, their presence in the army was not that large. As the title suggests, his main job was to collect revenue and taxes and maintain law and order in his district with the help of judges, police officers and darogas. Till then it would take anywhere between six and eight months to travel to India by sea. Mysore controlled the profitable trade of the Malabar coast where the Company purchased pepper and cardamom. East India Company begins trade in Bengal. myCBSEguide has just released Chapter Wise Question Answers for class 8 Social Science. The Revolt of 1857 gives us a glimpse into the world of the sepoys. But in 1792, attacked by the combined forces of the Marathas, the Nizam of Hyderabad and the Company, Tipu was forced to sign a treaty with the British by which two of his sons were taken away as hostages. Give trade concessions and other privileges the only European Company that traded with India Tipu possessed.You can see tiger. To reconstruct the Age of the Vindhyas Afghanistan and Egypt where soldiers were subjected. Extra Questions with complete Solutions are available for download in mycbseguide website and mobile app because the. The banks of the two newspapers take over the Company zamindari rights over their lands where the Company also over. 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