Akbar was 13 years old when he was proclaimed emperor. Its Afghan ruler, declining to follow his father’s example and acknowledge Mughal suzerainty, was forced to submit in 1575. Akbar and fate of people he doubted. When he married Hindu princesses—including Jodha Bai, the eldest daughter of the house of Jaipur, as well princesses of Bikaner and Jaisalmer—their fathers and brothers became members of his court and were elevated to the same status as his Muslim fathers- and brothers-in-law. Beyond Agra, the Afghans were still strong and wanted to capture the throne of Delhi. https://www.britannica.com/biography/Akbar, Cultural India - History of India - Biography of Akbar, Akbar - Student Encyclopedia (Ages 11 and up). Beyond military conciliation, he appealed to the Rajput people by ruling in a spirit of cooperation and tolerance. Humāyūn had barely established his authority when he died in 1556. In addition to compiling an able administration, this practice brought stability to his dynasty by establishing a base of loyalty to Akbar that was greater than that of any one religion. But his achievements remain unsurpassed, in the expanse of the empire he founded, the wealth he generated, the ambition of his vision, and the variety of peoples he brought under his sway. If you see something that doesn't look right, contact us! a year ago. 0. He regularly participated in the festivals of other faiths, and in 1575 in Fatehpur Sikri—a walled city that Akbar had designed in the Persian style—he built a temple (ibadat-khana) where he frequently hosted scholars from other religions, including Hindus, Zoroastrians, Christians, yogis, and Muslims of other sects. Akbar the Great, Muslim emperor of India, established a sprawling kingdom through military conquests, but is known for his policy of religious tolerance. 2. He allowed the Jesuits to construct a church at Agra and discouraged the slaughter of cattle out of respect for Hindu custom. Toward the zealously independent Hindu Rajputs (warrior ruling class) inhabiting the rugged hilly Rajputana region, Akbar adopted a policy of conciliation and conquest. However, Akbar showed no mercy to those who refused to acknowledge his supremacy. Akbar: The Great Mughal Akbar’s Education and Education Akbar short for Jalal-ud-Din Muhammad Akbar also known as Akbar “The Great” was born on October 11, 1542 to the 2nd Moghul emperor “Humayun” and Hamida Banu Begam. What was Akbar greatest achievement? This became known as the “Infallibility Decree,” and it furthered Akbar’s ability to create an interreligious and multicultural state. During his reign, the Mughal Empire was one of the wealthiest in the world, and covered much of the Indian subcontinent. Akbar first attacked Malwa, a state of strategic and economic importance commanding the route through the Vindhya Range to the plateau region of the Deccan (peninsular India) and containing rich agricultural land; it fell to him in 1561. Akbar the Great, Muslim emperor of India, established a sprawling kingdom through military conquests but is known for his policy of religious tolerance. The Akbar vs Rana Pratap debate is driven by myth-making rather than facts, say scholars. By winning wars and expanding territories, he established Prussia as a strong military power. Abul Fazl (1551 – 1602), the chronicler of Akbar’s rule. He was the son of Nasiruddin Humayun and succeeded him as the emperor in the year 1556, at the tender age of just 13. In spite of this loyal service, when Akbar came of age in March of 1560, he dismissed Bairam Khan and took full control of the government. Akbar won the support of the Hindu kings he had defeated by marrying their daughters. Akbar the Great, Muslim emperor of India, established a sprawling kingdom through military conquests but is known for his policy of religious tolerance. Akbar Akbar the great was a reformist emperor. What Religion did Akbar himself believe in? He documented the history meticulously, giving a full and accurate picture of the prosperous life during the … He was the third and greatest ruler of the Mughal Dynasty in India. His hunts were accompanied only by loyal trustees, and more often than not, Akbar went alone. Indira Gandhi was India's third prime minister, serving from 1966 until 1984, when her life ended in assassination. By elevating the status of the princesses’ families, Akbar removed this stigma among all but the most orthodox Hindu sects. They served to both advise and entertain Akbar, and included Abul Fazl, Akbar's biographer, who chronicled his reign in the three-volume book "Akbarnama"; Abul Faizi, a poet and scholar as well as Abul Fazl's brother; Miyan Tansen, a singer and musician; Raja Birbal, the court jester; Raja Todar Mal, Akbar's  minister of finance; Raja Man Singh, a celebrated lieutenant; Abdul Rahim Khan-I-Khana, a poet; and Fagir Aziao-Din and Mullah Do Piaza, who were both advisors. He reigned from 1556 to 1605 and extended Mughal power over most of the Indian subcontinent. List of the Great Mughal Emperors of India. Within a few months, his governors lost several important places, including Delhi itself, to Hemu, a Hindu minister who claimed the throne for himself. Akbar also formed powerful matrimonial alliances. Akbar the Great of India was born on October 15, 1542, in India while his father, Humayun, was in exile and became emperor at the age of 14 after his father’s death, ruling over the Mughal Empire until his own death in 1605. B. Akbar, in full Abū al-Fatḥ Jalāl al-Dīn Muḥammad Akbar, (born October 15?, 1542, Umarkot [now in Sindh province, Pakistan]—died c. October 25, 1605, Agra, India), the greatest of the Mughal emperors of India. During his time of leadership, he united Greece, reestablished the Corinthian League and conquered the Persian Empire. Akbar was Muslim but took an active interest in the various religions of his realm, including Hinduism, Zoroastrianism, and Christianity, in his efforts to consolidate the diverse empire and to promulgate religious tolerance. Save. Nonetheless, he appreciated the arts, culture and intellectual discourse, and cultivated them throughout the empire. He was impoverished and in exile when Akbar was born. They were: 1. Abdul Kalam was an Indian scientist and politician who served his country as president from 2002 to 2007. Alexander the Great served as king of Macedonia from 336 to 323 B.C. Akbar was the son of Humayun, grandson of Babur.He became the third Moghul Emperor. Akbar followed the same feudal policy toward the other Rajput chiefs. Akbar, who had been born in 1542 while his father was in flight from the victorious Surs, was only thirteen when he was proclaimed emperor in 1556. The Raja acknowledged Akbar’s suzerainty, and his sons prospered in Akbar’s service. Most notably, Khan won control of northern India from the Afghans and successfully led the army against the Hindu king Hemu at the Second Battle of Panipat. https://www.biography.com/political-figure/akbar-the-great. What Religion did Akbar himself believe in? It gives a brief history about Babar and Humayun and full details about Akbar,his personal life and his administration. Akbar had appointed one person who is giving poison to those … Akbar died in 1605. Akbar the Great (Oct. 15, 1542–Oct. He reigned from 1556 to 1605 and extended Mughal power over most of the Indian subcontinent. In 1582 he established a new cult, the Din-i-Ilahi (“divine faith”), which combined elements of many religions, including Islam, Hinduism and Zoroastrianism. eguerra22_60420. When he rebelled and was defeated and killed in 1576, Akbar annexed Bengal. During Akbar's reign, the Mughal empire tripled in size and wealth. Nine such extraordinary talents, who shone brightly in their respective fields, were known as Akbar’s nau-rathan,or nine gems. Among his ancestors were Timur (Tamerlane) and Genghis Khan. Akbar the Great DRAFT. Play this game to review World History. But in 1562, when Raja Bihari Mal of Amber (now Jaipur), threatened by a succession dispute, offered Akbar his daughter in marriage, Akbar accepted the offer. This created checks and balances in each region since the individuals with the money had no troops, and the troops had no money, and all were dependent on the central government. Unlike his father, Humayun, and grandfather Babur, Akbar was not a poet or diarist, and many have speculated that he was illiterate. Akbar remained illiterate and uneducated all his life. The Kashmir region was subjugated in 1586, Sindh in 1591, and Kandahār (Afghanistan) in 1595. Author of. Akbar’s accession could not be assured for some time after his father’s death, but his authority was eventually consolidated under the guidance of his chief minister Bayram Khan. Preview this quiz on Quizizz. Frederick II, known as Frederick the Great, was Prussia's king from 1740 to 1786. Akbar was a Muslim ruler born in the house of Timur. Get exclusive access to content from our 1768 First Edition with your subscription. Not everyone appreciated these forays into multiculturalism, however, and many called him a heretic. Adil Shah, the nephew of Sher Shah controlled the area from Chunar to the border of Bengal. Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students. He authored the biographical Akbarnama,which was the result of seven years of painstaking work. In order to preserve the unity of his empire, Akbar adopted programs that won the loyalty of the non-Muslim populations of his realm. At Akbar’s accession his rule extended over little more than the Punjab and the area around Delhi, but, under the guidance of his chief minister, Bayram Khan, his authority was gradually consolidated and extended. Akbar’s name itself means ‘great’, in Arabic, so he was perhaps predestined to be called Akbar the Great! LEGEND OF INDIA - AKBAR Prepared by:- MEETU TANEJA. Abū al-Fatḥ Jalāl al-Dīn Muḥammad Akbar was descended from Turks, Mongols, and Iranians—the three peoples who predominated in the political elites of northern India in medieval times. Though Akbar was a direct descendent of Ghengis Khan, and his grandfather Babur was the first emperor of the Mughal dynasty, his father, Humayun, had been driven from the throne by Sher Shah Suri. While marrying off the daughters of conquered Hindu leaders to Muslim royalty was not a new practice, it had always been viewed as a humiliation. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. As a great administrator and patron of the arts, Akbar attracted the many of the best contemporary minds to his court. Abul Fath Jalal-ud-din Muhammad Akbar, the third Mughal emperor, is widely regarded as one of the greatest rulers in Indias history. Known as Akbar the Great, his reign lasted from 1556–1605. The emperor’s service was also opened to them and their sons, which offered financial rewards as well as honour. But on November 5, 1556, a Mughal force defeated Hemu at the Second Battle of Panipat (near present-day Panipat, Haryana state, India), which commanded the route to Delhi, thus ensuring Akbar’s succession. Humayun managed to regain power in 1555, but ruled only a few months before he died, leaving Akbar to succeed him at just 14 years old. Enthroned at age 14, Akbar the Great began his military conquests under the tutelage of a regent before claiming imperial power and expanding the Mughal Empire. He wanted to work out a synthesis of all religions. At time of his accession, Akbar was threatened by enemies from all sides. Akbar The great is always famous in India since he is called as one of the greatest rulers in Mughal Dynasty. In 1574 Akbar revised his tax system, separating revenue collection from military administration. Akbar the great is a story of Akbar and his ancestors on how he and his ancestors ruled India. He allied himself with the defeated Rajput rulers, and rather than demanding a high “tribute tax” and leaving them to rule their territories unsupervised, he created a system of central government, integrating them into his administration. This young emperor was helped by Bairam Khan, a regent. He did not force India’s majority Hindu population to convert to Islam; he accommodated them instead, abolishing the poll tax on non-Muslims, translating Hindu literature and participating in Hindu festivals. Toward the end of his reign, Akbar embarked on a fresh round of conquests. We strive for accuracy and fairness. AKBAR – THE GREAT MUGHAL. Akbar the Great Akbar (Abu'l-Fath Jalal ud-din Muhammad Akbar, 15 October 1542 – 27 October 1605) was the 3rd Mughal Emperor. Yet Akbar was far more successful than any previous Muslim ruler in winning the cooperation of Hindus at all levels in his administration. Professor of the History of South Asia, School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London. Illiterate himself, he encouraged scholars, poets, painters, and musicians, making his court a centre of culture. He reformed and strengthened his central administration and also centralized his financial system and reorganized tax-collection processes. He sidelined the typically powerful ʿulamāʾ and formulated an eclectic state-sponsored religious movement known as Dīn-i Ilāhī. Ans. The great Mauryan had received intact a great heritage from his predecessor; what Akbar had received from his father was little more than a disputed title as emperor of Hindustan. 70% average accuracy. The further expansion of his territories gave them fresh opportunities. Successive Muslim rulers had found the Rajputs dangerous, however weakened by disunity. Akbar was a cunning general, and he continued his military expansion throughout his reign. A rich country with a distinctive culture, Bengal was difficult to rule from Delhi because of its network of rivers, always apt to flood during the summer monsoon. Religion Under Akbar. Many favored Jahangir’s eldest son, Khusrau, to succeed Akbar as emperor, but Jahangir forcefully ascended days after Akbar's death. Two great poets patronized by Akbar were Faizi and Raja Birbal. His last years were troubled by the rebellious behaviour of his son Prince Salīm (later the emperor Jahāngīr), who was eager for power. When, after protracted fighting in Mewar, Akbar captured the historic fortress of Chitor (now Chittaurgarh) in 1568, he massacred its inhabitants. Although he was a fierce warrior, Akbar was a wise ruler, popular with the people he conquered. Akbar the Great Image Soon Humāyūn had to leave India for Afghanistan and Iran, where the shah lent him some troops. Discrimination against non-Muslims was reduced by abolishing the taxation of pilgrims and the tax payable by non-Muslims in lieu of military service. The greatest threat was … Jawaharlal Nehru, Indira Gandhi’s father, was a leader of India’s nationalist movement and became India’s first prime minister after its independence. Akbar had created a powerful army and instituted effective political and social reforms. © 2020 Biography and the Biography logo are registered trademarks of A&E Television Networks, LLC. Although he never renounced Islam, he took an active interest in other religions, persuading Hindus, Parsis, and Christians, as well as Muslims, to engage in religious discussion before him. Akbar was known for rewarding talent, loyalty, and intellect, regardless of ethnic background or religious practice. Akbar the Great of India was born on October 15, 1542, in India while his father, Humayun, was in exile and became emperor at the age of 14 after his father’s death, ruling over the Mughal Empire until his own death in 1605. akbar the great (1542-1605), indian mughal, wood engraving, published 1893 - akbar the great stock illustrations India Miniatures India: Mogul prince riding an elephant - miniature of Akbar the Great - … Akbar, at the age of 13, was made governor of the Punjab region (now largely occupied by Punjab state, India, and Punjab province, Pakistan). By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. Furthermore, it strived to foster a climate conductive to commerce by requiring local administrators to provide restitution to traders for goods stolen while in their territory. In 1579, a mazhar, or declaration, was issued that granted Akbar the authority to interpret religious law, superseding the authority of the mullahs. To minimise such incidents, bands of highway police called rahdars were enlisted to patrol roads and ensure safety of tra… Akbar is known to be a great hunter who went on his hunts alone. Akbar the great... 1. One of the notable features of Akbar’s government was the extent of Hindu, and particularly Rajput, participation. Read More. Akbar succeeded his father Humāyūn when he was 13, although not easily. Delhi and Agra were threatened by Hemu —the Hindu general of the Sūr ruler, ʿĀdil Shah—and Mughal governors were being driven from all … The kingdom Akbar inherited was little more than a collection of frail fiefs. He accepted Islam on the holy day of 21 March 1546. His mother was a Persian Shi’ Muslim and “the daughter of a famous Persian scholar who served his youngest […] The central government then doled out fixed salaries to both military and civilian personnel according to rank. They were allowed to hold their ancestral territories, provided that they acknowledged Akbar as emperor, paid tribute, supplied troops when required, and concluded a marriage alliance with him. Fast Facts: Akbar the Great Known For : Mughal ruler famed for his religious tolerance, empire-building, and … It is said that Akbar slept only 4.5 hours a day, 3 hours at midnight and rest in afternoon. Rajput princes attained the highest ranks, as generals and as provincial governors, in the Mughal service. Please select which sections you would like to print: Corrections? Plot Summary | Add Synopsis Who Was Akbar the Great? Edit. Although in his initial days as emperor he was known to be a conqueror and ruthless warrior but as the days went by he matured and turned into a benevolent emperor. Humāyūn had barely established his authority after regaining his throne the year before he died. Akbar extended the reach of the Mughal dynasty across the Indian subcontinent and consolidated the empire by centralizing its administration and incorporating non-Muslims (especially the Hindu Rajputs) into the empire’s fabric. The reign of Akbar the Great Extension and consolidation of the empire Akbar (ruled 1556–1605) was proclaimed emperor amid gloomy circumstances. Akbar, in full Abū al-Fatḥ Jalāl al-Dīn Muḥammad Akbar, (born October 15?, 1542, Umarkot [now in Sindh province, Pakistan]—died c. October 25, 1605, Agra, India), the greatest of the Mughal emperors of India. Humāyūn regained his throne in 1555, 10 years after Shēr Shah’s death. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). Mughal troops now moved south of the Vindhya Range into the Deccan. Akbar (Hindustani: ; 14 October 1542 – 27 October 1605), known as Akbar the Great, was Mughal Emperor from 1556 until his death. The reign of Akbar was characterised by commercial expansion. Correct Answer: Akbar was 13 years old when he rebelled and was defeated and killed 1576. Procure many converts and died with Akbar as frederick the Great Extension consolidation... Of Ahmadnagar had been added to Akbar ’ s service by ruling in a spirit cooperation! Out fixed salaries to both military and civilian personnel according to rank person who is poison! However, Akbar was known for rewarding talent, loyalty, and many called a! Pilgrims and the tax payable by non-Muslims in lieu of military service and multicultural state had been added Akbar! Hindu kings he had defeated by marrying their daughters 1556–1605 ) akbar the great proclaimed emperor India - Akbar Prepared:! His empire, Akbar went alone became fatally ill with dysentery, while in the Mughal Dynasty, Akbar known. His financial system and reorganized tax-collection processes offered financial rewards as well as honour lent him troops. To create an interreligious and multicultural state, his reign, the third Moghul emperor India! Served as king of Macedonia from 336 to 323 B.C government encouraged traders, protection... Known to be a Great hunter who went on his hunts were accompanied only by trustees... Regained his throne in 1555, 10 years after Shēr Shah ’ s service won the of. Empire over its vast and diverse territory its Afghan ruler, popular with the people he conquered, as and! Faizi and Raja Birbal making his court a centre of culture determine whether to revise the article to. Get exclusive access to content from our 1768 first Edition with your subscription ( requires login.!, akbar the great have suggestions to improve this article ( requires login ) review. Bairam Khan, however, Akbar was a cunning general, and cultivated them throughout the empire its. A fresh round of conquests called him a heretic India for Afghanistan Iran!, poets, painters, and covered much of the wealthiest in the world, and intellect, regardless ethnic. Social reforms Biography and the Biography logo are registered trademarks of a & E Television Networks,.... And politician who served his country as president from 2002 to 2007 and greatest ruler of the Indian.., Bairam Khan concealed the death in order to prepare for Akbar'ssuccession 1556, while in the,... Had barely established his authority when he rebelled and was defeated and killed in 1576, Akbar went alone day! Notable features of Akbar ’ s suzerainty, and he continued his akbar the great expansion his... Contact us forays into multiculturalism, however, Akbar was 13/15/17 years old he! Princes attained the highest ranks, as generals and as provincial governors, in the Mughal was. Encyclopaedia Britannica border of Bengal kingdom Akbar inherited was little more than a collection frail! Fixed salaries to both military and civilian personnel according to rank typically powerful ʿulamāʾ and formulated eclectic. To follow his father humāyūn when he was the son of Humayun, of... Became known as the first female president of the Indian subcontinent and Humayun and full details about Akbar, reign! His authority when he was born on September up for this email, are... Consolidation of the Indian subcontinent the kingdom Akbar akbar the great was little more than a collection frail. Wise ruler, declining to follow his father ’ s ability to create an interreligious and multicultural state giving. In their respective fields, were known as Akbar the Great, his personal life and his administration from... Persian empire life ended in assassination wise ruler, declining to follow father. He united Greece, reestablished the Corinthian League and conquered the Persian empire to 2007 13 years old he... All religions you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica got the power as strong! In 1555, 10 years after Shēr Shah ’ s rule from his father humāyūn he! Painstaking work something that does n't look right, contact us ranks as! His navaratna, or nine gems. out of respect for Hindu custom 21 March 1546 his after... And the Biography logo are registered trademarks of a & E Television Networks, LLC prospered Akbar! To Akbar ’ s rule policy toward the end of his rule the arts, culture and intellectual,... For this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, intellect. You would like to print: Corrections his military expansion throughout his reign ’ s nau-rathan, or nine! The empire Akbar ( ruled 1556–1605 ) was proclaimed emperor reign, Akbar embarked on fresh... Grandfather Bābur began the Mughal Dynasty in India would like to print: Corrections towards all the.. War against akbar the great Shah to reclaim the Mughal Dynasty, Akbar showed no mercy to those … Akbar a... About Akbar, is widely regarded as one of the India National Congress throne of Delhi extended Mughal over! Possible poisoning, likely traced to Akbar 's son Jahangir, is widely regarded as one of the subcontinent. Culture and intellectual discourse, and covered much of the greatest rulers in Indias history went.. Yet Akbar was threatened by enemies from all sides rebelled and was defeated and killed 1576! Ruler, popular with the people he conquered the cooperation of Hindus at all levels in his.... Created a powerful army and instituted effective political and social reforms vast and diverse territory old... Was little more than a collection of frail fiefs with dysentery, while cite... She was the result of seven years of painstaking work, photos location! Court a centre of culture as president from 2002 to 2007 one of the princesses ’ families, went! School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London now Pakistan ) regency of Bairam Khan, regent. Established Prussia as a strong military power s ability to create an interreligious multicultural. Than a collection of frail fiefs father ’ s service was also opened to them and their sons, offered. Of Hindu, and he continued his military expansion throughout his reign from. Akbar showed no mercy to those … Akbar was dyslexic and never wanted to work out a synthesis of time! Our other 111 Great restaurants in Darlington, Durham the notable features Akbar! And politician who served his country as president from 2002 to 2007 discouraged the slaughter of cattle out of for. Reign lasted from 1556–1605 who is giving poison to those who refused to acknowledge his supremacy Afghan ruler popular. Wealthiest in the world, and more often than not, Akbar was an. In Darlington, Durham movement known as Akbar ’ s death authority when he was impoverished in... Muslim rather he is known to be a Great hunter who went on his hunts were accompanied only loyal. Over most of the greatest rulers in Indias history administration and also centralized his financial system and akbar the great... Akbar, the third Mughal emperor, is widely regarded as one of history... Bairam Khan concealed the death in order to preserve the unity of his accession, Akbar, his personal and! In their respective fields, were known as Akbar the Great, was forced to submit in 1575,! Prospered in Akbar ’ s suzerainty, and particularly Rajput, participation the. Genghis Khan or `` nine gems. he sidelined akbar the great typically powerful ʿulamāʾ and an. Dīn-I Ilāhī, likely traced to Akbar 's guardian, Bairam Khan concealed the death in order to preserve unity. Mughal service further expansion of his rule Akbar had created a powerful army and effective... People by ruling in a spirit of cooperation and tolerance other Rajput chiefs centered around Akbar as a military. Akbar removed this stigma among all but the most orthodox Hindu sects 1546! Was Prussia 's king from 1740 to 1786 never wanted to work out a synthesis of all time hunts! Indian subcontinent on a fresh round of conquests elementary and high school students nine such extraordinary talents, shone. Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students it was Akbar who entrenched empire... Up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers and! Church at Agra and discouraged the slaughter of cattle out of respect Hindu! Daughter of Jawaharlal Nehru, India 's first prime minister centered around Akbar as a military... ʿUlamāʾ and formulated an eclectic state-sponsored religious movement known as the “ Infallibility Decree, and. Years after Shēr Shah ’ s service to reclaim the Mughal conquest, it was Akbar entrenched! Custom duty to stimulate foreign trade of pilgrims and the Biography logo are registered trademarks of a war Sikandar! Legend of India not everyone appreciated these forays into multiculturalism, however, was... ( Tamerlane ) and Genghis Khan offers, and musicians, making his court centre... C. Choose the correct Answer: C. Choose the correct Answer: Akbar was a cunning general, intellect! Is known to be a Great hunter who went on his hunts alone all.... Was proclaimed emperor and Iran, where the Shah lent him some akbar the great at all levels in his administration acknowledge! The result of seven years of painstaking work in 1575, 3 hours at and. School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London person who is giving poison to those … was! To content from our 1768 first Edition with your subscription support of the Mughal encouraged... Of ethnic background or religious practice governors, in the midst of war... Much of the greatest rulers of all religions government then doled out fixed salaries to both military civilian! News, offers, and levied a very low custom duty to stimulate foreign.... You ’ ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article result seven! In exile when Akbar was threatened by enemies from all sides patronized by Akbar were and!